Season 1[edit source]
|Tranquilizer gun||"Day 1: 12:00am-1:00am"||12am|
|A tranquilizer gun was used by Jack Bauer to neutralise George Mason in his office. The file describes how they are non-lethal, non-combat weapons which fire iron anaesthetic darts powered by a pneumatic pump. It mentions that they are not effective against strong opponents or if shot into meaty parts of the body and are commonly used to inject animals.
|Homing device||"Day 1: 1:00am-2:00am"||1am|
|A homing device was used by Bridgit to locate Martin Belkin’s ID in the Mojave Desert. The file describes how the device seen in the show is fictional, but the science exists to create it. It explains how cell phones will soon have the technology to locate a user in proximity to a base station and a Swedish company will soon release software to allow consumers to utilise this function.|
|Optical scanner||"Day 1: 2:00am-3:00am"||2am|
|An optical scanner was used by Jack Bauer to scan an assassin's thumb for identification. The file explains that scanners work by digitizing images of text or illustrations and dividing them into grids of boxes to put them in a form a computer can use. It also mentions smaller, handheld scanners on the market and that Jack's flatbed scanner works like a copy machine.
|Encryption||"Day 1: 3:00am-4:00am"||3am|
|Encryption was used to secure the information on the key card that Jack had Jamey Farrell decrypt. The file describes how encryption works and explains concerns raised over the ability to encrypt criminal activities such as child pornography or espionage, as well as presenting the counter arguments in favour of privacy and e-commerce security.
|Phone tapping||"Day 1: 4:00am-5:00am"||4am|
|Nina Myers set up a phone tap to listen into the call between Ira Gaines and Greg Penticoff. The file gives the background on the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994, explaining how phone taps work within the law and the steps that law enforcement must take to justify using this technology.|
|Microtransmitter telephones||"Day 1: 5:00am-6:00am"||5am|
|A microtransmitter telephone was given to Jack by Ira Gaines so they could communicate discreetly. The file explains that devices with talking and listening capabilities are not available currently, but the Japanese company NTT DoCoMo's Media Computing Lab is working on the "Whisper" which is predicted to be released in 2005.
|Flak jacket||"Day 1: 6:00am-7:00am"||6am|
|Jack gave Nina a flak jacket before removing her from CTU and shooting her on the orders of Ira Gaines. The file establishes the history of body armor from the 1920s onwards, explaining polymer materials and the development of Kevlar by Stephanie Kwolek. It goes on to describe other uses for Kevlar.
|Wireless handheld devices||"Day 1: 7:00am-8:00am"||7am|
|Jamey Farrell used a wireless handheld device to communicate with Ira Gaines from within CTU. The file describes how they can be used for two-way text messaging and wireless internet, and then talks about the Handspring Treo and the Motorola PageWriter 2000.
|U.S. Secret Service||"Day 1: 8:00am-9:00am"||8am|
|The U.S. Secret Service protected David Palmer during the assassination attempt at the Santa Clarita Power Plant. The file gives the history of the organization from its establishment in 1865, their original mandate of investigating fraud and currency counterfeiting, and their responsibility of protecting Presidents since 1902.
|Wireless tracing and privacy||"Day 1: 9:00am-10:00am"||9am|
|Milo Pressman used wireless tracing to locate Teri Bauer's location at the Gaines compound. The file explains that with the advent of mobile technology, 911 responders were unable to locate callers and so the FCC ordered wireless providers to deliver their customers' locations. It goes on to describe the privacy concerns of such technology.|
|Microtech H.A.L.O. II knife||"Day 1: 10:00am-11:00am"||10am|
|Ted Cofell had a Microtech H.A.L.O. II knife in his car to defend himself from Jack Bauer. The file calls it the epitome of OTF automatic knives, and gives examples of other films it has been seen in. It then gives the history of the different versions of the HALO, and describes its Kydex sheath.
|Global Positioning System||"Day 1: 11:00am-12:00pm"||11am|
|Jack used a Global Positioning System device when infiltrating the Gaines compound. The file for this episode explains the introduction of the Navstar satellite in 1993 and the advent of GPS capabilities, as well as how the signals work and the controversies surrounding the technology.
|Belgrade||"Day 1: 12:00pm-1:00pm"||12pm|
|Belgrade was the location of Luca Univox, a holding company that was linked to Jamey Farrell's financial records. The research file explains it is the capital of Serbia and Yugoslavia, and gives a brief history of Slobodan Milošević's rise to power and the Yugoslav Wars.
|Ultrasound||"Day 1: 1:00pm-2:00pm"||1pm|
|Dr Rose Kent gave Teri Bauer an ultrasound at Grace Memorial Hospital. The file explains the technology and its uses in SONAR and medicine. It also gives the history of its use in medicine since World War II, and Dr. Karl Dussik's publication on ultrasonography.
|MI5||"Day 1: 2:00pm-3:00pm"||2pm|
|Milo Pressman opened up some sockets to MI5 to help Robert Ellis produce a report on Operation Nightfall. The research file gives the history of MI5 since its inception in 1909, and describes its relationship with the other British intelligence services, the SIS and GCHQ. It also describes MI5's mandate and regulation by law.
|The Griffith Observatory||"Day 1: 3:00pm-4:00pm"||3pm|
|The Griffith Observatory is where Keith Palmer met Carl Webb to discuss the death of George Ferragamo. The file gives the history of the site, as well as a description of its layout, and who owns it. It also talks about the other films and TV shows that have filmed there, including Rebel Without A Cause.
|Fiber optics||"Day 1: 4:00pm-5:00pm"||4pm|
|CTU used fiber optics to surveil the sting operation involving Elizabeth Nash and Alexis Drazen. The file describes what fiber optics are, and how the physics behind them works. It goes on to explain they are made out of glass drawn into thin strands, and they are used for surveillance as well as medicine.
|Dissociative amnesia||"Day 1: 5:00pm-6:00pm"||5pm|
|Phil Parslow diagnosed Teri Bauer with dissociative amnesia as the cause of her memory loss. The file describes dissociative disorders and explains how they are thought to stem from trauma as a coping mechanism. It then describes several subtypes of dissociative amnesia.
|Power grid||"Day 1: 6:00pm-7:00pm"||6pm|
|Alan Morgan was paid to cut off a section of the power grid for Alexis Drazen. the research file explains how the power grid is the network of transmission lines that provides electricity for the US and Canada. It then gives detail on the different sections of the power grid, how the science works and the grid's substations and control stations.|
|Underground detention facilities||"Day 1: 7:00pm-8:00pm"||7pm|
|Mark DeSalvo headed an underground detention facilities that was scheduled to house Victor Drazen. The file gives the history of underground prisons in foreign countries such as Vietnam, Iraq and Syria. It then goes on to give examples of non-prison underground facilities used by the US military.
|Super Tuesday||"Day 1: 8:00pm-9:00pm"||8pm|
|Day 1 took place on Super Tuesday when David Palmer was running as a Democratic candidate. The file explains how presidential primaries work, when the 2000 Super Tuesday fell and the criticisms and values of the primary system.
|Purview of CTU||"Day 1: 9:00pm-10:00pm"||9pm|
|David Palmer and George Mason debated the purview of CTU when Palmer convinced him to trade Alexis Drazen for Jack Bauer. The file explains that CTU is a fictional agency but some real federal agencies do fall under Senate purview. It then describes the purview of the CIA and the FBI.|
|Port of Los Angeles||"Day 1: 10:00pm-11:00pm"||10pm|
|The Drazens held Kim Bauer hostage at the Port of Los Angeles before they attempted to leave the country. The file gives the port's location in San Pedro, 20 miles south of Downtown LA, and describes the history of the port since its establishment in 1907. It also explains the port's trade activity.
|United States Coast Guard||"Day 1: 11:00pm-12:00am"||11pm|
|Jack spoke with an officer of the United States Coast Guard after the shootout at the dock. The research file gives a description of the service, how they operate under the Department of Transportation during peace and the US Navy during war, and their different tasks and responsibilities.
Season 2[edit source]
|Joint Chiefs of Staff||"Day 2: 8:00am-9:00am"||8am|
|Eric Rayburn set up a meeting with the Joint Chiefs of Staff against Palmer's wishes. The file describes the history of the Joint Chiefs from their beginnings at the start of World War II and formal establishment in 1947. It also describes who makes up the Joint Chiefs and their responsibilities.
|Alert conditions||"Day 2: 9:00am-10:00am"||9am|
|David Palmer raised the alert conditions to red, which caught the attention of reporter Ron Wieland. The research file gives the history of the alert condition system from March 2002, and explains the different levels in use currently. It also talks about the previous system of LERTCONs, DEFCONs and EMERGCONs used during the Cuban Missile Crisis.|
|Exposure to plutonium||"Day 2: 10:00am-11:00am"||10am|
|George Mason was exposed to plutonium at the terrorist warehouse in Panorama City. The research file describes how plutonium emits alpha radiation and low energy x-rays which are only harmful inside the body. It goes on to describe the effects of plutonium damage but how there are other more dangerous materials.
|Reporting child abuse||"Day 2: 11:00am-12:00pm"||11am|
|Dr Kinnard reported the abuse of Megan Matheson to the police after she discovered signs of it at St. Virgil's Hospital. The file details how every state and the District of Columbia have laws about reporting child abuse and the designated mandatory reporters. It also details how to report any suspected child abuse and gives the National Child Abuse Hotline.|
|Sharing U.S. intelligence in the face of terrorism||"Day 2: 12:00pm-1:00pm"||12pm|
|Ambassador Shareef requested that David Palmer share U.S. intelligence to help stop the Second Wave attack. The file details how this works since September 11, how countries reciprocate, what information can be derived from it and what questions are raised about the security of such arrangements.|
|Presidential pardon||"Day 2: 1:00pm-2:00pm"||1pm|
|A Presidential pardon was given to Nina Myers in exchange for information about Second Wave. The file explains how under Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution, the President has this power, and the history of it coming about. It also explains the power of sentence reductions, and the Pardon Clerk office.
|Executive privilege in times of crisis||"Day 2: 2:00pm-3:00pm"||2pm|
|Mike Novick explained executive privilege to David Palmer as a precedent for the detainment of Ron Wieland. The file describes how executive privilege is not mentioned in the constitution but many Presidents have been allowed to use unchecked powers. It mentions the history of democratic governments as well as historic cases such ad George Washington and Richard Nixon.|
|ASCII code||"Day 2: 3:00pm-4:00pm"||3pm|
|ASCII code was the research file for episode 8, although it does not seem to be related to any part of the story. The file explains how ASCII code works by assigning a binary number to each character, and how the extended code includes mathematical symbols. It also describes the history of its introduction in the 1960s and Robert W. Bemer's contribution.|
|Airplane safety||"Day 2: 4:00pm-5:00pm"||4pm|
|The airplane carrying Jack Bauer and Nina Myers crash landed with 3 survivors. The research file gives 17 tips recommended by airline experts on how to survive on an airplane: the tips include seat belt use, flight attendants' safety briefings, not drinking too much alcohol, which materials are best to wear to avoid fire damage, and the "brace" position.|
|Infrared imaging||"Day 2: 5:00pm-6:00pm"||5pm|
|Tom Baker used infrared imaging at 18 Starling Court before the CTU raid on the house. The file describes that infrared is heat radiation emitted by any object with a temperature above absolute zero. It also talks about how heat is created on the molecular level, and human emission of infrared. It also gives the color code of infrared imaging.|
|Hijab||"Day 2: 6:00pm-7:00pm"||6pm|
|When entering the mosque to identify Syed Ali, Kate Warner used a hijab to cover her face. The file explains what a hijab is and the background of Muslim women who wear them. It also gives the basis of hijab from the Hadith, rather than the Quran, and explains the guidelines for how women and men should dress in Muslim culture.
|Imam||"Day 2: 7:00pm-8:00pm"||7pm|
|Al-Fulani was the Imam of the mosque that Syed Ali was praying at before he was cornered and captured by CTU. The file describes the role of an Imam for Sunni Muslims, needing no ordination, and also the role for Shi'ite Muslims, in which Imams have secret knowledge of God and creation and are appointed by God.
|UV light||"Day 2: 8:00pm-9:00pm"||8pm|
|Brian Pierson used a UV light to detect the footprints of the Coral Snake commandos at Norton Airfield. The research file describes how UV light is a valuable tool in forensic investigation, and as well as being used for fingerprint and footprint identification, the file also gives many other uses such as detecting bomb making materials, rape semen or marked ransom money.|
|Fallout shelter supplies||"Day 2: 9:00pm-10:00pm"||9pm|
|Lonnie McRae had an extensive collection of fallout shelter supplies in the bunker beneath his cabin. The file mainly describes fallout shelters, explaining what they are and the minimum amount of fresh air needed for them. It also describes what lighting they need, how they must avoid utility lines and how much drinking water is needed per occupant.|
|Nuclear Emergency Support Team||"Day 2: 10:00pm-11:00pm"||10pm|
|A Nuclear Emergency Support Team attempted to defuse the nuclear bomb at Norton Airfield. The research file describes their founding in 1974 after a bomb scare in Boston, how many members they have and their responsibilities. It then goes on to describe how they detect credible nuclear threats, and what equipment they use to dismantle nuclear devices.
|Audio authentication||"Day 2: 11:00pm-12:00am"||11pm|
|CTU agent Gibson used audio authentication to verify that the Cyprus recording implicated three Middle Eastern countries in the Second Wave bombing. The file gives details on the process of audio authentication, from examining anomalies in the audio to inspecting the physical media for tampering, and using computer equipment for spectrum analysis.|
|Videophone||"Day 2: 12:00am-1:00am"||12am|
|Vice President James Prescott used a Videophone to communicate with David Palmer from Washington, D.C. The file describes portable suitcase videophones that were used by reporters covering the 2003 War in Iraq. It explains how they work with satellites and how they are of little use inside the United States, as well as including a story of a reporter filming a US spy plane crew in China.|
|Posse Comitatus Act||"Day 2: 1:00am-2:00am"||1am|
|Mike Novick reminded David Palmer of the Posse Comitatus Act when Palmer ordered him to use the army to quell riots in Georgia. The file gives the history of the introduction of the act in 1878, how it stops the use of armed forces for law enforcement, and the amendment of the law in 1981 for drug interdictions. It also explains how the Coast Guard and National Guard are not subject to the act.
|Stun guns and tasers||"Day 2: 2:00am-3:00am"||2am|
|Ronnie Stark used a stun gun to torture Jack Bauer, and a taser to incapacitate him when he was captured. The file talks about the development of stun gun technology in the 1970s, and the popular taser variant that shoots electrodes at a distance. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of tasers, and explains how they can be misused and how law enforcement officers defend their use.
|Epinephrine and Beroglide||"Day 2: 3:00am-4:00am"||3am|
|Raymond O'Hara used Epinephrine to resuscitate Jack Bauer after his heart stopped, and Beroglide to paralyse his diaphragm to torture him. The research file gives detail on Epinephrine (or adrenaline) and how it is naturally secreted by the adrenal gland, and its medical uses to stimulate heart rate and treat other conditions. It then notes that Beroglide is a fictional drug.
|25th Amendment||"Day 2: 4:00am-5:00am"||4am|
|James Prescott invoked the 25th Amendment in order to unseat David Palmer from the Presidency. The research file explains the introduction of the Amendment due to Kennedy's death in 1965 and a second clause added in 1967 to address the Vice Presidency. It also states the 4 provisions of the Amendment and the history of its use.
|Tarball||"Day 2: 5:00am-6:00am"||5am|
|Alex Hewitt had a tarball on a hidden external hard drive in his apartment that he decompressed in order to rebuild his files. The file explains that a tarball is a jargon term for a tar archive and details how the .tar archiving system works. It also gives a quick history of their use throughout the 1980s and the term becoming more commonplace in the 90s.
|Voice generator||"Day 2: 6:00am-7:00am"||6am|
|Jack Bauer used Hewitt's voice generator program during a call with Peter Kingsley. The research file talks about the software "Natural Voices", a computer speech system from AT&T, introduced in 2001. It explains what the software can do, how it will lead to use on mobile devices, and which customers use it.
|Los Angeles Coliseum||"Day 2: 7:00am-8:00am"||7am|
|Sherry Palmer met Peter Kingsley at the Los Angeles Coliseum during a sting operation to prove the Cyprus recording was false. The file gives the history of the stadium, and which teams have played there and what events have been held there. It also explains that in 1984 the site was designated a State and National Historical Landmark.
Season 3[edit source]
|Bioterrorist viruses||"Day 3: 1:00pm-2:00pm"||1pm|
|The threat introduced in Season 3 was a bioterrorist virus. The file describes how the Cordilla Virus is a fictional strain similar to the Hantavirus, which causes HPS. It describes how Hantaviruses are carried by rodents and describes the symptoms, before explaining about Centers for Disease Control and "Category A" viruses.
|Bioterrorist incident protocol||"Day 3: 2:00pm-3:00pm"||2pm|
|Sunny Macer enacted a Bioterrorist incident protocol when the threat was discovered. The file explain that the FBI is designated to co-ordinate suspected incidents of bioterrorism, and a State Health Official is in charge of 24/7 response. It also describes how local health care workers look out for unusual diseases and notify the State Health Department and CDC.|
|Heroin withdrawal||"Day 3: 3:00pm-4:00pm"||3pm|
|Jack Bauer showed symptoms of heroin withdrawal that were noticed by Nicole Duncan. The file describes the symptoms of withdrawal, and the timescales of when they manifest and peak. It explains how it can sometimes be fatal, and describes symptoms of overdose. Lastly, there is mention of heroin causing depression.
|Detention center||"Day 3: 4:00pm-5:00pm"||4pm|
|Ramon Salazar was held in a detention center before Jack got him out. The file for this episode talks about the Federal Bureau of Prisons' institutions with different security levels based on presence of external patrols, gun towers, staff-to-inmate ratio and other factors. It also talks about the Metropolitan Detention Center in downtown LA, and how it would hold someone like Salazar.
|Russian roulette||"Day 3: 5:00pm-6:00pm"||5pm|
|Jack and Salazar are forced by Peel to play Russian roulette. The file describes it as a "grim game of chicken", and goes through the rules. It then gives the first known references to Russian roulette from fiction; and explains that there isn't much historical evidence to suggest that actual Russian soldiers ever played the game. It gives a link to an American gun safety website for further safe gun practices.
|Presidential debates||"Day 3: 6:00pm-7:00pm"||6pm|
|Palmer and Keeler participated in the Presidential debates on Day 3. The file explains that they are a modern television age creation, and the history of Presidential campaigns including the debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. It also talks about the 1960 debates, and what has happened since 1976.
|Las Nieves||"Day 3: 7:00pm-8:00pm"||7pm|
|Hector Salazar's base of operations was in Las Nieves, Mexico. The file briefly describes how Las Nieves is a small town in the state of Durango, close to the California border, sitting just south of the state of Chihuahua. There is a map accompanying the text, illustrating the town's location.
|Topographic overlay||"Day 3: 8:00pm-9:00pm"||8pm|
|CTU used a topographic overlay to look for possible landing sites that Chase may have used. The file explains what topography is, and how overlays use symbols and coloring to show elevation and terrain shape. It describes how both natural and human-features are indicated.|
|Campaign contributions||"Day 3: 9:00pm-10:00pm"||9pm|
|Alan Milliken made significant campaign contributions to David Palmer's run for re-election. The file outlines the Federal Election Campaign laws on individuals donating to campaigns, and how national banks, corporations and labor oranizations are forbidden from contributing. It also discusses PACs.|
|Cauterize wounds||"Day 3: 10:00pm-11:00pm"||10pm|
|After taking a gunshot wound to the hand, Chase Edmunds was forced to cauterize his wound with a poker. The file describes how throughout history intense heat was used to stop bleeding, and how the blood vessels shrink and clot. The file also explains about electrocautery and advice given in a 1926 American Red Cross guide to cauterizing with gunpowder.|
|Swiss bank accounts||"Day 3: 11:00pm-12:00am"||11pm|
|Michael Amador had a Swiss bank account that Nina Myers transferred money into. The file explains that they are useful for keeping your financial status a secret, and Swiss law differs from American law to keep the details of account holders confidential. It mentions the exceptions to these laws and the tax charged on interest.|
|Spectroscope||"Day 3: 12:00am-1:00am"||12am|
|Nina Myers used a spectroscope to verify that the virus was real from Amador. The file explains about laser light and the Raman spectrum to identify molecules in objects or gas. It describes what a spectroscope does and how researchers use them to study living cells.|
|Voice over internet protocol||"Day 3: 1:00am-2:00am"||1am|
|Nina gave Jack instructions on how to speak to Marcus Alvers on an internet socket using voice over internet protocol. The file explains how analog voice signal is converted to digital to be transported over the internet rather than the public switched telephone network. It mentions that VoIP is gaining popularity, although reliability and sound quality is currently limited.|
|Angina||"Day 3: 2:00am-3:00am"||2am|
|Alan Milliken suffered from angina, needing medication to treat his heart. The file explains that angina is chest pain that warns of an impending heart attack, due to the heart not receiving enough oxygen. It describes the symptoms of angina, before explaining the differences between stable and unstable angina.|
|Soviet biowarfare||"Day 3: 3:00am-4:00am"||3am|
|CTU discovered that Stephen Saunders was using stolen Soviet biowarfare devices to deliver the virus. The file describes the Soviet Union's 1979 breaking of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention when anthrax spores were accidentally released. It goes on to talk about Vladimir Pasechnik's defection to Britain and his explanation of the Soviet biowarfare program.|
|Incubation periods||"Day 3: 4:00am-5:00am"||4am|
|Gael Ortega's symptoms indicated that the Cordilla virus's incubation period was lower than predicted. The file explains that an incubation period is the amount of time between infection and the start of symptoms, and goes on to list the incubation periods of several diseases including SARS, Ebola, smallpox and influenza.|
|Go||"Day 3: 5:00am-6:00am"||5am|
|Marcus Alvers told Michelle Dessler that he met his employer Steven Saunders in a Go parlor in Chinatown. The file explains that Go is a Chinese board game developed thousands of years ago, consisting of a grid of 19 vertical and horizontal lines and 361 black and white stones. The file explains that the aim of the game is to acquire territory by surrounding adjacent areas.|
|Suicide capsule||"Day 3: 6:00am-7:00am"||6am|
|Sunny Macer offered suicide capsules to the infected residents of the Chandler Plaza Hotel. The file explains that field agents and military personnel carry them in case they are captured. It describes how the CIA experimented with saxitoxin in the 1950s, but in 1970 Richard Nixon ordered the destruction of their stocks of it.
|UC Santa Barbara library||"Day 3: 7:00am-8:00am"||7am|
|Jane Saunders was working at the UC Santa Barbara library when she was taken by CTU. The file mentions the two libraries at UCSB, the Donald C. Davidson Library and the Arts Library. It explains the history of the former library and mentions that they contain 2.6 million volumes and server 18,800 students.
|Code 9||"Day 3: 8:00am-9:00am"||8am|
|Tony Almeida gave Agent Baker a code 9 in order to move his unit away from the rear of Stephen Saunders's building. The file explains that police transmissions use codes corresponding to different crimes, though they are not standardized across different cities. It mentions that code 9 could mean a jail break, a road block or that summer uniform is enacted.
|Carrier signal||"Day 3: 9:00am-10:00am"||9am|
|Chloe O'Brian used the carrier signal of a recording to track Stephen Saunders's location for Tony Almeida. The file explains that a carrier signal is a specific frequency in a communications channel used to carry information - and gives examples of cell phones, AM and FM radio, explaining that turning a radio dial is selecting a carrier frequency.|
|F/A-18 Hornet||"Day 3: 10:00am-11:00am"||10am|
|Two F/A-18 Hornets intercepted Stephen Saunders's helicopter and blew it up, stopping him from escaping. The file explains that they are all-weather aircraft used for air-to-air or air-to-ground assault, and talks about their use in Operation Desert Storm. It goes on to say that the F/A-18 is currently in use by the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, as well as the air forces of Canada, Australia, Spain, Kuwait, Finland, Switzerland, and Malaysia.
|Los Angeles Subway||"Day 3: 11:00am-12:00pm"||11am|
|Jack Bauer and Chase Edmunds tracked Arthur Rabens to the Los Angeles Subway. The file explains that Los Angeles streetcar lines were closed down by 1963, and in the 80s a network of metro and light rail lines were built. It describes the only underground subway, the Red Line, and talks about the design of the stations and how they were built to resist earthquakes of 7.5 degrees.
|Reattaching amputated limbs||"Day 3: 12:00pm-1:00pm"||12pm|
|Chase Edmunds had his amputated hand reattached by surgeons at the end of Day 3. The file says that the biggest risk is infection of the limb, and then details the procedure of reconnecting blood vessels, as well as the period of rehabilitation needed and further surgery. It explains that nerve regeneration is a gradual process and the ability to use a limb can take a long time.
Season 4[edit source]
|Secretary of Defense||"Day 4: 7:00am-8:00am"||7am|
|James Heller was the Secretary of Defense, who was kidnapped at the start of Day 4. The file explains what the Secretary of Defense is responsible for, serving under the President, and describes the different areas of the military under the SecDef's purview. It mentions that he is responsible for 2.3 million military and 700,000 civilian employees.
|Hostage videos||"Day 4: 8:00am-9:00am"||8am|
|Omar broadcast a hostage video of Heller across the internet. The file mentions that Iraqi hostage videos have been shown on Al-Jazeera TV during the Iraq war, and goes on to describe several specific videos that have been shown: a Polish hostage, a Japanese hostage, and American contractor, Humanitarian worker Margaret Hassan, American businessmen Nick Berg and Paul Johnson, and Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.|
|Caltrans traffic cameras||"Day 4: 9:00am-10:00am"||9am|
|Chloe O'Brian used Caltrans traffic cameras to watch Andrew Paige's torture. The file explains that the California Department of Transportation has over 400 cameras, and their picture is beamed to traffic management centers to verify incidents. It mentions that the footage can only be used for traffic management, and not for law enforcement.
|Nitroglycerin||"Day 4: 10:00am-11:00am"||10am|
|Audrey Raines asked her captors to give her father access to nitroglycerin for his heart condition. The file says it is used to treat angina, which occurs when coronary arteries become too restricted. It explains that nitroglycerin works by widening the blood vessels to the heart.
|Thorazine||"Day 4: 11:00am-12:00pm"||11am|
|Maya Driscoll was prescribed Thorazine for her schizophrenia. The file explains that it is a low-potency drug that helps control hallucinations and delusions. It mentions that it is also prescribed to treat extreme behavorial disorders in children and manic-depressive illness. It warns that Thorazine should not be taken in conjunction with alcohol, barbiturates or narcotics.
|Sensory disorientation technique||"Day 4: 12:00pm-1:00pm"||12pm|
|Curtis Manning used sensory disorientation techniques to interrogate Richard Heller, much to the outrage of his father. The file describes how SDT has been used in alternative medicine, torture and psychological experimentation. It gives the definition as the reduction of sensory input, and gives a range of techniques. It ends by mentioning its use in the prisons of Abu Ghraib, and the debate around whether it breaches the Geneva Convention on torture.|
|Haldol||"Day 4: 1:00pm-2:00pm"||1pm|
|Maya Driscoll was given Haldol by Mark Kaylis, despite having an allergy to it. The file describes Haloperidol as an anti-psychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other nervous conditions. It describes how it works by blocking receptors in the brain, counteracting the overactivity of dopamine. It mentions some side effects, including involuntary movement and dizziness.
|Reporting gunshot wounds||"Day 4: 2:00pm-3:00pm"||2pm|
|Dr. Martinez reported Dina Araz's gunshot wound to the police. The file explains that statutes in almost all U.S. states require healthcare professionals to report gunshot wounds within 24 hours, or face criminal charges. It also explains the debate around the issue, as often they are not held liable for failing to disclose other information that could indicate illegal activity.|
|Terrorist watchlist||"Day 4: 3:00pm-4:00pm"||3pm|
|Dina and Behrooz Araz were not on any terrorist watchlists as of Day 4. The file describes the consolidation of all agencies' watchlist into a single database in 2003, and the establishment of the Terrorist Screening Center, supporting thousands of screeners across the country. It explains how police officers are able to check names against the watchlist during routine interactions.|
|Fingerprint encryption||"Day 4: 4:00pm-5:00pm"||4pm|
|Marianne Taylor's computer at the Rockland Building was protected by fingerprint encryption. The file expands upon biometrics, its role in technology and its use as an authentication mechanism. It claims that fingerprints are one of the oldest method of verification due to their uniqueness, although damage to fingers can render readings invalid.|
|Terrorist cells||"Day 4: 5:00pm-6:00pm"||5pm|
|Habib Marwan joined one of his terrorist cells at the Rockland Building. The file defines cells as independent groups of terrorists who do not know each other. It describes planning or support cells and sleeper cells, mentioning the Al Qaeda training manual's emphasis on blending into the environment. It then describes execution cells, who carry out the final plan.|
|EMP||"Day 4: 6:00pm-7:00pm"||6pm|
|McLennen-Forster set off an EMP from the basement of their building. The file describes eelectromagnetic pulses as shockwaves that can overwhelm electronic circuitry, and the effect they have on electrical devices. It mentions other systems vulnerable to EMP, and describes their effect in warfare as non-lethal but highly destructive. It goes on to mention that a nuclear bomb would cause an EMP effect.
|Night vision||"Day 4: 7:00pm-8:00pm"||7pm|
|Specter and his commandos used night vision to track down Jack Bauer and Paul Raines. The file explains that night vision amplifies existing light and projects an electronic image to the user. It then goes into technical detail of how light strikes a photo cathode, is sent across a vacuum and hits a phosphor screen - green being used as the human eye can distinguish different shades the best. It mentions how they can be damaged by bright lights.
|Mobile parabolic microphone||"Day 4: 8:00pm-9:00pm"||8pm|
|Baron used a mobile parabolic microphone to surveil Jack and Dina's sting operation. The file describes how they use concave reflectors and need to be directed towards the source of the sound, potentially picking up sound from 150 feet away. They are not used for standard recording as they do not pick up low frequencies, but are commonly used in espionage and law enforcement.|
|Implanted tracking devices||"Day 4: 9:00pm-10:00pm"||9pm|
|Behrooz Araz was fitted with an implanted tracking device. The file says that implant technology normally used in animals has been adapted for use in humans to track criminals or lost children. It also describes their medical use, for monitoring vital bodily functions, and mentions protest groups who oppose them.
|Stealth bomber||"Day 4: 10:00pm-11:00pm"||10pm|
|Mitch Anderson used a stealth bomber to destroy Air Force One. The file concerns itself with the F-117A Nighthawk, explaining that it does not use radar, instead using GPS navigation, and is only used in night missions. It says that although it has an F designation, it is primarily a ground attack aircraft, then that they cost $45 million each and that there are 55 in use.
|Nuclear football||"Day 4: 11:00pm-12:00am"||11pm|
|Jack Bauer raced to recover the nuclear football. The file describes a leather briefcase containing the launch codes and Gold Codes, whose name is unknown but is nicknamed the "football". It says it contains a SATCOM radio and is guarded by "Yankee White". It came about during the Kennedy era and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
|Transporting nuclear warheads||"Day 4: 12:00am-1:00am"||12am|
|Habib Marwan's men stole a transported nuclear warhead in Iowa. The file talks about the Office of Transportation and Safeguards, based in Albuquerque, who transport energy department cargo. It describes their vehicles' safety measures, including rugged design, armed federal agents, and equipment to ensure their security.|
|Blowfish algorithm||"Day 4: 1:00am-2:00am"||1am|
|Sabir Ardakani's files were encrypted with the Blowfish algorithm. The files describes the cryptographic algorithm, explaining it was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier. It mentions that it was designed as a general-purpose algorithm that was not patented and in the public domain.
|Consulate||"Day 4: 2:00am-3:00am"||2am|
|Jack Bauer infiltrated the Chinese consulate in order to arrest Lee Jong. The file describes consulates as offices of countries within other countries, explaining their function and relationships to embassies. It also mentions the rules for entering, and the staff's diplomatic immunity.
|Cruise missile||"Day 4: 3:00am-4:00am"||3am|
|Habib Marwan launched a cruise missile towards an American city. The file talks about what they are designed to carry, and their shorter range compared to intercontinental ballistic missiles. It mentions where they are launched from, their navigation, and their development in Nazi Germany during World War II.|
|Presidential succession||"Day 4: 4:00am-5:00am"||4am|
|Don Ashton reminded Mike Novick of the rules of presidential succession. The file mentions that in 1947, the order of presidential succession was changed to include the Speaker of the House. It then mentions the other cabinet members in line, and describes the 25th Amendment, which was ratified in 1967.|
|Martial law||"Day 4: 5:00am-6:00am"||5am|
|David Palmer advised Charles Logan to prepare to declare martial law. The file describes it as a system of rules for when a military authority takes control of the state. It mentions that it is instituted after the normal institutions cannot function, and explains the reduced personal rights of citizens that it implements.
|Slowing the heart||"Day 4: 6:00am-7:00am"||6am|
|Jack Bauer slowed his heart to convince people at CTU that he had died. The file describes the effect of beta blockers, and their use in treating angina. It specifically mentions Atenolol and metoprolol as two types of beta blocker, and then talks about how epinephrine is used to stimulate heart rate.
Season 5[edit source]
|Assassinations of Presidents||"Day 5: 7:00am-8:00am"||7am|
|Former President David Palmer was assassinated at the start of Day 5. The file outlines the attempted assassination of former President Theodore Roosevelt, then talks about the four Presidents who were killed while in office. It also mentions sitting Presidents who survived assassination attempts.|
|Presidential memoirs||"Day 5: 8:00am-9:00am"||8am|
|Jack Bauer found a clue in Palmer's unfinished presidential memoirs. The file talks about James Buchanan, the first President to write his memoirs, then mention memoirs which were not written well. It expands upon Ulysses S. Grant's memoirs, and then compares Presidents who wrote solely about their time in office against those who wrote full autobiographies.
|White House tape recordings||"Day 5: 9:00am-10:00am"||9am|
|Martha Logan searched through the White House tape recordings to find her conversation with David Palmer. The file states that since 1940, all conversations in the Oval Office have been taped. It mentions how the rooms were bugged, and mentions Lyndon Johnson's tape installation after Kennedy's assassination, and the Nixon tapes. It then looks into the reason for the recordings, and what historians have used them for.|
|Hostages on American soil||"Day 5: 10:00am-11:00am"||10am|
|Anton Beresch took hostages on American soil in Ontario Airport. The file mentions the 1979 hostage situation in the American embassy in Tehran, who were held for 444 days. It then mentions terrorist attacks on U.S. soil, including attacks in Beirut, Riyadh, and the September 11 attacks in New York and the Pentagon.
|Nerve gas||"Day 5: 11:00am-12:00pm"||11am|
|Ivan Erwich recovered nerve gas from Hangar BB. The file describes nerve gas as clear and colorless, and talks about how they are released and enter the body. It goes over the effects of the chemicals, and speaks about their history in Nazi Germany and the most and least deadly types.
|Coup d'etat||"Day 5: 12:00pm-1:00pm"||12pm|
|Jack Bauer describes Walt Cummings's actions as a Coup d'etat. The file explains the definition of the phrase, a quick and sudden overthrow of the government by a small number of people, and mention that they may or may not involve violence. It translates the phrase from the French, meaning "a strike to the state" or "a blow to the government".|
|Russian sex slave trade||"Day 5: 1:00pm-2:00pm"||1pm|
|Jacob Rossler was using Inessa Kovalevsky as part of the Russian sex slave trade. The file describes how traffickers recruit women, and where the networks are located. It talks about the legality of prostitution in Russia, how many women are estimated to be involved, and the movements by the United Nations to introduce laws against it.|
|Shopping mall safety||"Day 5: 2:00pm-3:00pm"||2pm|
|Jack Bauer ensured the safety of a shopping mall during Day 5. The file describes how security of malls has increased since 9/11, and how guards have been trained to avoid situations that have happened in other countries. It talks about an advisory issued to Los Angeles malls, and how video surveillance is used.|
|Strontium isotope||"Day 5: 3:00pm-4:00pm"||3pm|
|Chloe O'Brian tracked the purchase of Strontium Isotope to Omicron International. The file describes Strontium as a dark yellowish metal used for medical radiation and ageing of rock. It talks about its isotopes, including Strontium-90 which is used in dirty bombs.
|Handheld flamethrowers||"Day 5: 4:00pm-5:00pm"||4pm|
|One of Ostroff's men used a handheld flamethrower to attack Yuri Suvarov's motorcade. The file talks about the history of the weapon from the 5th Century B.C. to World War I, and their removal from the U.S. military in 1978. It describes how they operate, the restrictions on their use in California, and how the 24 team used a propane fuelled prop.
|Truth serums||"Day 5: 5:00pm-6:00pm"||5pm|
|Christopher Henderson was injected with a truth serum to make him talk. The file talks about Hyoscine and Sodium Pentothal, two real life truth serums, and describe their effects on patients during interrogation. It explains that they cannot be relied upon, as patients have been known to make false statements while under treatment.|
|Clinical psychologist||"Day 5: 6:00pm-7:00pm"||6pm|
|Barry Landes was a clinical psychologist who was in a relationship with Kim Bauer. The file describes the profession, providing therapy for individuals and groups, and mentions that they are unable to prescribe medication. It outlines how some work in a physical rehabilitation setting and others help people get over trauma.|
|Death by nerve gas||"Day 5: 7:00pm-8:00pm"||7pm|
|Edgar Stiles died due to nerve gas released by Ostroff. The file explains that death by to nerve gas happens due to asphyxiation, and describes the symptoms preceding it. It then mentions that gases such as VX, tabun and sarin can be absorbed via the skin.|
|WET list||"Day 5: 8:00pm-9:00pm"||8pm|
|Jack Bauer gave Theo Stoller a copy of the WET list in exchange for Collette Stenger's location. The file explains that the WET list is a fictional device created by the writers, but in real life the National Counterterrorism Center maintains a list of international terrorists shared with the CIA, FBI and NSA.
|Clean air technology||"Day 5: 9:00pm-10:00pm"||9pm|
|The nerve gas was released at Wilshire Gas Company, which utilised clean air technology. The file describes how NASA's research created a way to remove ethylene from the air, to keep plants and fruit fresher for longer. It mentions how in 2001, after the Anthrax attacks, this technology was adapted for use in antiterrorism emergencies.|
|Homeland Security Authority||"Day 5: 10:00pm-11:00pm"||10pm|
|Karen Hayes and Miles Papazian were from the Homeland Security Authority. The file explains why Homeland Security was established, and how they took over certain parts of government but not the intelligence agencies. It describes how Homeland Security work with the intelligence agencies to keep the country safe.
|Bank vault||"Day 5: 11:00pm-12:00am"||11pm|
|Evelyn Martin kept the recording of Charles Logan in a bank vault at City Trust and Savings. The file describes bank vaults and what protection they typically have from intrusion. It explains how modern vaults have timing locks preventing them from opening during business hours, and have ventilation to let in fresh air.|
|Brachial artery||"Day 5: 12:00am-1:00am"||12am|
|Christopher Henderson severed Audrey Raines's brachial artery to prevent Jack Bauer from following him. The file describes it as the major blood supplier to the muscles of the upper arm, and its use in determining blood pressure. It then talks about three different types of bleeding from different types of blood vessels.|
|Node||"Day 5: 1:00am-2:00am"||1am|
|Chloe O'Brian used a remote node to log-in to CTU's systems from Bill Buchanan's house. The file explains that a node is any device connected to a network, giving examples of PCs, servers, and printers. It mentions that nodes have unique network addresses called DLCs or MACs.|
|Plane hijack response||"Day 5: 2:00am-3:00am"||2am|
|After Jack Bauer took over Flight 520, a plane hijack response was enacted. The file explains that after September 11, security on board planes was increased including armed air marshals and pilots. Measures to protect cockpits and aggressively deal with suicide bombers are outlined.|
|Hijack distress signal||"Day 5: 3:00am-4:00am"||3am|
|Graem Bauer faked a hijack distress signal to give Charles Logan the pretence to shoot Flight 520 down. The file gives background on the four digit codes used by pilots to communicate with air traffic control, and gives "7500" and "7700" as ones used to indicate a hijack, which is usually confirmed by ATC.|
|Backscatter x-ray||"Day 5: 4:00am-5:00am"||4am|
|Joseph Malina used a backscatter x-ray to check Christopher Henderson for weapons. The file describes what a backscatter x-ray is, explaining that it delivers a higher resolution image than traditional x-ray. It mentions that this technology has been proposed as an alternative to personal searches at airports, but discusses the privacy issues with using it.|
|Marine One||"Day 5: 5:00am-6:00am"||5am|
|Jack Bauer prepared to kidnap Charles Logan on board Marine One. The file defines Marine One as the call sign of any Marine Corps aircraft carrying the President, compared with Air Force One for fixed wing aircraft. It mentions the 19 HMX-1 "Nighthawk" helicopters which are traditionally used as Marine One, and talks about other people carried by the vehicle.
|Presidential funerals||"Day 5: 6:00am-7:00am"||6am|
|David Palmer's body was being transported back to Washington, D.C. for a presidential funeral. The file explains that by law former Presidents are afforded a state funeral, and mentions the formal traditions including the 21 round salute. It then talks about the remains lying in repose for public viewing, and the details of the procession along Constitution Avenue.|
Season 6[edit source]
|C-130 Hercules||"Day 6: 6:00am-7:00am"||6am|
|Jack Bauer arrived back in Los Angeles on board a C-130 Hercules plane. The file explains how it was first introduced to the U.S. Air Force in 1959 to transport troops and supplies, and details its features and technical capacity.|
|Cobra helicopter||"Day 6: 7:00am-8:00am"||7am|
|Two Cobra helicopters were dispatched to take out Hamri Al-Assad's base of operations. The file describes the Super Cobra helicopter, for land and sea based missions, and mentions that each one costs over $10 million. It gives a run down of what was destroyed by Super Cobras during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.
|Military prisons||"Day 6: 8:00am-9:00am"||8am|
|Hasan Numair was released from a military prison during Day 6. The file explains that they hold prisoners of war and other inmates, and mentions the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth and the Air Force Regional Confinement Facility at Edwards Air Force Base as two examples.|
|Suitcase nuke||"Day 6: 9:00am-10:00am"||9am|
|A suitcase nuke was detonated in Valencia on the morning of Day 6. The file defines a suitcase nuke, or ADM, and outlines their history in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and the Cold War. It then mentions that it is unlikely that any are still functioning today.
|Shock waves||"Day 6: 10:00am-11:00am"||10am|
|Jeff and Chuck's helicopter crashed due to shock waves from the nuclear detonation. The file explains how shock waves form, what happens to objects caught in a shock wave, and how shock waves are responsible for the majority of material damage caused by a nuclear explosion.|
|Terrorist websites||"Day 6: 11:00am-12:00pm"||11am|
|Heydar was visiting terrorist websites while imprisoned at the Anacostia Detention Facility. The file describes how Al Qaeda and other terror groups have transferred most of their activities to the internet, and how intelligence officials monitor websites rather than remove them. It explains how most online activity occurs on social networking sites and private forums.|
|Hyocine-Pentothal||"Day 6: 12:00pm-1:00pm"||12pm|
|Jack Bauer interrogated his brother Graem using Hyocine-Pentothal. The file explains it is a fictional drug, mentioning its use in Season 5, and says it is based on two real "truth serums", Hyoscine and Sodium Pentothal.
|Deactivating bombs||"Day 6: 1:00pm-2:00pm"||1pm|
|Jack Bauer was forced to deactivate a bomb at 4332 Florence Avenue. The file explains how technicians train to disarm bombs, and the Department of Defense's efforts Eglin Air Force Base in Niceville, Florida. The adaptation of techniques after experiences with guerrillas in Iraq is also mentioned.|
|C-4||"Day 6: 2:00pm-3:00pm"||2pm|
|9407 Hindry Place was destroyed with C-4 explosives. The file describes Composition 4 as a plastic bonded explosive, and explains how they work. It then mentions that C-4 requires a detonator or blasting cap to explode effectively, and that fire or bullets are not sufficient to detonate it.
|AA sponsor||"Day 6: 3:00pm-4:00pm"||3pm|
|Jeannie Tyler was Morris O'Brian's AA sponsor. The file describes the twelve step program from Alcoholics Anonymous, and how voluntary sponsorship works to help others maintain sobriety.|
|Cassette player bombs||"Day 6: 4:00pm-5:00pm"||4pm|
|Reed Pollock used a cassette player bombs to frame Hamri Al-Assad for the attempted murder of Wayne Palmer. The file tells how in 1988 warnings were issued about cassette players filled with Semtex explosive. It then gives an account of the Lockerbie bombing, and also a 1972 incident where two British girls unknowingly took a cassette player bomb on a flight to Tel Aviv, but the plane landed safely.|
|Air Force Two||"Day 6: 5:00pm-6:00pm"||5pm|
|Vice President Noah Daniels was on board Air Force Two during Day 6. The file describes how Air Force Two is not a plane but a call sign of any aircraft carrying the Vice President. It says that the commonly used aircraft for Air Force Two is a modified Boeing 757, and mentions that the President's plane is called Air Force One.
|Satellite phone||"Day 6: 6:00pm-7:00pm"||6pm|
|Anatoly Markov used a satellite phone to speak to Dmitri Gredenko. The file explains that they use orbiting satellites for communication. It talks about geostationary and Low Earth Orbit satellites, and the differences between the phones that use each.
|Geiger counter||"Day 6: 7:00pm-8:00pm"||7pm|
|Rogers used a geiger counter to assess the damage from the drone attack in San Francisco. The file explains how they work to detect radiation, and how they emit audible clicking sounds. It mentions that Hans Geiger created the first one in 1908.|
|Autistic savant||"Day 6: 8:00pm-9:00pm"||8pm|
|Mark Hauser used his autistic savant brother Brady to hack into the Edgemont Nuclear Power Plant system. The file describes specialist skills displayed by autistic savants, saying that 10% of autistic people display savant skills, compared with 1% in the general population.|
|Adrenaline||"Day 6: 9:00pm-10:00pm"||9pm|
|Arthur Welton gave Wayne Palmer a shot of adrenaline to keep him from collapsing. The file says it is commonly known as epinephrine, and is secreted by the adrenal gland in times of emergency. Its medical uses include combating cardiac arrest, bronchial asthma, emphysema and glaucoma.|
|Guided missile||"Day 6: 10:00pm-11:00pm"||10pm|
|Wayne Palmer sent a guided missile as a warning shot against Abu Fayed's country. The file describes them as unmanned space or air vehicles, whose paths can be adjusted during flight. It mentions that surface-to-surface missiles have a variety of warheads, but long distance ones are usually nuclear.|
|Cerebral hemorrhage||"Day 6: 11:00pm-12:00am"||11pm|
|Wayne Palmer suffered a cerebral hemorrhage in front of the press corps. The file explains that bleeding in the brain can cause a stroke, and that there are four types of cerebral hemorrhage describing where bleeding occurs. It then goes on to list the symptoms of the cerebral hemorrhage.|
|Blue code||"Day 6: 12:00am-1:00am"||12am|
|Peter Hock asks Karen Hayes why she blue coded a file containing details of Bill Buchanan releasing Abu Fayed from custody. The file relays the use of the term in the show, then explains that it was made up by the writers as a term meaning hidden or put aside.|
|Acetylene torch||"Day 6: 1:00am-2:00am"||1am|
|CTU Security used an acetylene torch to break through a locked door to reach Jack Bauer and Audrey Raines. The file explains that torches can be used to either bind or cut through metal, and explains how acetylene torches work. It then goes into detail of how they work to bind or cut through metal, and the chemistry behind it.|
|Restraining order||"Day 6: 2:00am-3:00am"||2am|
|James Heller took out a restraining order to stop Jack Bauer from being near his daughter. The file describes it as an order issued by the civil court, which is often used in cases of threats or violence. It explains that they are temporary, but breaching them results in contempt of court.|
|Videoconference||"Day 6: 3:00am-4:00am"||3am|
|Noah Daniels had a videoconference with Yuri Suvarov. The file describes a videoconference and the technology behind it. It explains that the technology on 24 makes participants appear to be in the same room, and although previously hardware costs made it prohibitively expensive, it is now predicted to be one of the fastest-growing segments of the computer industry.|
|Oil platform||"Day 6: 4:00am-5:00am"||4am|
|Phillip Bauer ran his operation from an offshore oil platform. The file describes a GOPLAT (gas and oil platform), and compares concrete and metal legs. It then defines the derrick, and says an oil platform is like a small village for the workers.|
|JDAM missiles||"Day 6: 5:00am-6:00am"||5am|
|Two F-18 Hornets destroyed Phillip Bauer's oil platform with JDAM missiles. The file describes the Joint Direct Attack Munition as a guidance tail kit that converts unguided bombs into "smart" munitions that can be targeted. It details the JDAM's development after Operation Desert Storm.|
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