The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a military conflict fought in Afghanistan during the 1980s. It was primarily fought between the invading Soviet forces and the CIA-backed Muslim insurgents known as the mujahideen.
Thanks to the Russian-made HIND helicopter, the Soviets dominated the skies of Afghanistan and inflicted major losses on the mujahideen. In response to the invasion, the CIA began supplying weapons to the guerillas, among them shoulder-fired missiles called Stingers. The mujahideen were able to easily shoot down Soviet choppers with these missiles, turning the tide of the war.
The Soviets were ultimately defeated by the mujahideen, which was a contributing factor to the fall of the Soviet Union. The power vacuum created by the war precipitated the Taliban's rise to power in Afghanistan. (Operation Hell Gate)